The evolution of Human Resource Management for 2024

The roots of Human Resources Management emerged at the beginning of the seventies, and the concept of Human Resources Management emerged as an alternative to people management, and attention to the content of people management has shifted from its old concept focused on attracting, training and managing workers, to a modern concept that deals with topics related to the culture of the organization, designing its structure, analyzing factors affecting human resources and providing the organization with a set of competencies. 

This transformation focuses on the human element.

The evolution of Human Resource Management

Differences between human resources management and people management:

Many in the article tried to compare Personnel Management (Personnel Management, manpower management...) With the human resources between efficiency and effectiveness, they discovered that they encountered these differences in their attempts.

Through their review of these differences, three fundamental differences between human resource management and people management were identified:

  1. Human Resource Management is mainly focused on the manager layer, while Personnel Management is focused on employees.
  2. Managers in the first rows are the focus of human resources management by fulfilling their responsibilities with regard to linking the organization's strategy to human resources management, while people management focuses in its practice on technical personnel.
  3. Other than people management, managing the culture of an organization is one of the activities that executives are interested in.
  4.  I have tried in the text of the 1978GUEST to define the differences between people management and Human Resources Management through a set of objectives, where human resources management seeks to achieve integration with the strategies of the organization.
  5. Loyalty: it consists in the loyalty of employees to the goals of the organization.
  6. Flexibility: it is concerned with the organization's ability to adapt and manage change.
  7. Quality: includes the quality of employees and services provided by the organization.

The adoption of these goals by organizations is considered a basic necessity to achieve a distinctive job performance.

The concept of human resources management has emerged as a modern alternative to the concept of people management, with the rising interest of academics and practitioners in human resources issues as a result of economic, social and technological changes in developed countries.

Institutions and companies are beginning to realize the importance of focusing on the human element as a way to achieve excellence.

Human resources management is defined as a distinct model of FF, which aims to achieve a competitive advantage through strategies that bring distinctive human resource software mac in terms of efficiency and loyalty. 

Therefore, the concept of Human Resource Management is based on basic principles, such as linking people's policies with the goals and strategies of the organization, and organizational culture playing an influential role in achieving excellence through managerial leadership.

Finally, the text focuses on the importance of the human element as one of the main assets of any organization, where the abilities and loyalty of employees play a decisive role in the excellence of successful organizations.

This is followed from the point of view of the importance of dealing with the human element with extreme care and care, and that the human element is an intangible resource that is achieved by giving sufficient time and attention. In addition, the human element should be viewed as a highly deterministic asset and not as a source of cost.

Human resources management must be of strategic importance to the organization, and this naturally requires that senior management attach particular importance to human resources management. Such management takes into account the long-term view of the strategic goals of the organization. Leadership roles

The management has full responsibility to ensure that there is a congruence and consistency in the HR strategy. 

Therefore, the HR strategy must take into account the obstacles and opportunities that can affect the strategic direction of the organization; he identified three levels:

External compatibility includes the integration of human resources management policies with the organization's strategy, as well as internal compatibility includes the integration of various activities and policies of Human Resources Management and their integration with managers. 

The third element is concerned with the role of the Directorate in the front rows. the premise is based on the principle that if human resources management is of strategic importance to the organization, then its management should be based on front-line managers, who view it as a key element to guide human resources management policies in an effective manner.

Managers ' responsibilities include setting salaries and evaluating performance, training, development, motivating teams, reducing costs, meeting customer needs, and improving performance. 

The fourth element is based on the basic motives that can be used to activate human resources management, and those motives can be strengthened by the communication process. Pay for performance and achieve harmony between employees.

These tools can be used not only to gain the acquiescence of employees, but to gain their loyalty to the organization. 

This aims to shift the focus from focusing on procedures, systems and people management, to favoring the success of the organization. Therefore, the idea of change management is a key point in achieving the strategic success of the organization.

Culture is a fundamental pillar in the concept of Human Resources Management: Culture is one of the fundamental pillars of Human Resource Management. They play an important role in shaping the way an organization treats its employees and guiding them towards achieving the organization's goals. Human resources management needs to be aware of and promote the corporate culture to ensure that the personal values and goals of employees and the goals of the organization are aligned.

Strict model of Human Resources Management: This model is based on achieving full alignment of HR activities and systems with the organization's strategy. This model requires the use of a human resource management system to achieve the goals and strategies of the organization. In this context, employees are treated as a resource similar to the rest of the production items.

Easy Human Resource Management model: This model focuses on achieving employee satisfaction and loyalty by providing a work environment that encourages development and creativity. According to this model, human resources management builds positive relationships with employees through practices such as training, communication and participation, and considers the flexibility, creativity and loyalty of employees to be important to achieve the organization's goals.

Historical development of Human Resources Management

The evolution of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management has evolved over the ages based on needs and changes in the economic and social environment. 

The need for such specialized management began during the period of the industrial revolution as a result of the emergence of labor organizations and increasing complexities in the management of human resources. 

Attention was directed towards the development of human resource management methods to meet the needs of growing organizations.

- Education and culture: the period after the Industrial Revolution witnessed a significant expansion in the field of education and an improvement in the level of awareness and education of workers. This led to the urgent need to have human resource management specialists to deal with this educated and diverse workforce.

- Government intervention: governments have intervened in relations between employers and workers by issuing labor laws and legislation. This led to the need for a specialized department in enterprises to ensure their compliance with these laws and avoid possible problems with the government.

- Labor unions and organizations: organizations have emerged that represent the interests of workers and seek to protect their rights and resources. It became necessary for the management to take care of building positive relationships with these organizations to strengthen cooperation and understanding.

- Stages of development of Human Resources Management: in the mid-nineteenth century to date, Human Resources Management has gone through several stages. The first stage was after the industrial revolution, where industries were confined and the labor system was based on the division of Labor and the use of simple tools. This stage was characterized by a lack of allocation of attention to human resources management.

In short, in this period, the orientation towards education and culture increased, relations between employers and workers developed due to government intervention and the establishment of labor organizations.

 Human Resource Management has evolved over time, as it began simply after the Industrial Revolution and turned into a specialized field that is concerned with the management and development of the workforce.

1: After the Industrial Revolution:

Industries were confined to the system of specialized denominations .For example, the industrialists practiced their handicrafts at home with simple tools, and in terms of Human Resources Management, Shura was the beginning of many human problems, where:

  • I looked at the worker as a commodity to be bought and sold after management relied more on evidence than on the worker.
  • There are many repetitive jobs that do not require skill due to the large factory system.

Nevertheless, the industrial revolution brought a huge increase in production and goods.

2: the emergence of the scientific management movement:

The scientific management movement emerged as a product of developments that contributed to highlighting the importance of Human Resource Management, led by scientist Taylor. Taylor laid several foundations of management based on the scientific method. These grounds include the following:

- An actual development in the field of management: it is the replacement of traditional management methods based on experience and experience with a scientific methodology. This approach is based on Logical Foundations and careful observations, dividing the work associated with the functions into specific parts. The required activities are simplified and refined using the latest materials and equipment available.

- Scientific selection of employees: this is fundamental and crucial for the success of Human Resources Management. This involves assessing the abilities and skills of applicants for work, based on which the most suitable people are selected for the available positions.

- Attention to the development and training of human resources: Taylor focuses on the need to develop the capabilities of employees and teach them the necessary skills. This is essential to ensure that the worker can achieve the Required Performance, by equipping him with the necessary skills and providing appropriate training.

- Cooperation between management and human resources: this requires a balance between meeting the needs of employees from an increase in wages, and achieving the interests of the employer by reducing costs. This requires careful coordination and understanding between the parties.

In this way, Taylor made a significant contribution to the development of the concept of human resources management by applying the scientific method, paying attention to the development of employees and achieving a balance between the interests of employees and employers.

3: The growth of labor organizations:

At the beginning of the twentieth century, labor organizations grew in countries, especially in transportation and heavy materials. The trade unions tried to increase workers' wages and reduce working hours. The emergence of the scientific management movement, which tried to exploit the worker for the benefit of the employer, helped in the emergence of trade unions.

4: The beginning of the first World War

The first World War showed the need to use new methods of testing employees before hiring, and these methods were successfully applied in the course of work, with the aim of avoiding their failure after employment. 

With the development of scientific management and industrial psychology, some specialists in Human Resource Management began to appear in organizations. These specialists provided assistance in recruitment, training, healthcare and Industrial Security. 

These can be considered the first who contributed to the formation of the concept of modern human resource management. Interest in the social welfare of workers also increased, social service and housing centers were created. 

The establishment of these centers began at a time when the human resources departments began to develop and devote their work to the previously mentioned aspects. Most of the workers who were interested in the field of human resources often focused on the human and social aspects of the worker.

5: Between the first and Second World War

The end of the twenties and the beginning of the Thirties of the last century saw developments in the field of human relations. 

The Hawthorne experiments led by Elton Mayo and his team were carried out, and these experiments convinced many people of the importance of workers ' satisfaction with their work and the provision of appropriate working conditions. 

This period witnessed developments in the understanding of human relations in the work environment and the impact this had on the performance of teams and organizations.

6: After the Second World War and to the present

At this stage, the scope of work carried out by the human resources department has expanded to include training and development of employees, developing programs to motivate them and rationalizing human relations, and its role was not limited to compressing human resources files, attendance, departure and routine work only.

Modern trends in human resource management are still focused on human relations and the use of research results in psychology and anthropology. It emphasizes the use of the term humanities; because it is more comprehensive, as it takes into account all aspects of the work environment and the worker, and the impact of these factors on his behavior. 

It should be ensured that behavioral sciences are an auxiliary tool for management in exploring the motives of human behavior of employees and the influence of factors on this behavior. Behavioral sciences add a kind of new knowledge that can be used in areas of human resource management, such as incentive policies and informal organizations.

In the future, human resource management can be seen as being in an increasing growth of its relevance in organizations as a result of political and technological changes. 

There are challenges to be faced by human resource management, such as the growing trend towards computer dependence and automation in a lot of jobs that used to depend on the worker. 

In addition to political and economic pressures, the constant change in the components of the workforce, both in terms of professions and specialties. Emphasis should be placed on the use of new concepts such as management engineering and comprehensive quality in the field of resource management.

We are witnessing continuous development in the field of human resources management to meet contemporary challenges and emphasize human factors and behavioral sciences as the basis for building an effective and sustainable work environment.

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